Classical mechanics | ||||||

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**Newton's laws of motion**consist of three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries,

^{[2]}and can be summarized as follows:

**First law**: Every body remains in a state of rest or uniform motion (constant velocity) unless it is acted upon by an external unbalanced force.^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}This means that in the absence of a non-zero net force, the center of mass of a body either remains at rest, or moves at a constant speed in a straight line.**Second law**: A body of mass*m*subject to a net force**F**undergoes an acceleration**a**that has the same direction as the force and a magnitude that is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass, i.e.,**F**=*m***a**. Alternatively, the total force applied on a body is equal to the time derivative of linear momentum of the body.**Third law**: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal, opposite and collinear. This means that whenever a first body exerts a force**F**on a second body, the second body exerts a force −**F**on the first body.**F**and −**F**are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. This law is sometimes referred to as the*action-reaction law*, with**F**called the "action" and −**F**the "reaction". The action and the reaction are simultaneous.

*Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica*, first published on July 5, 1687.

^{[6]}Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems.

^{[7]}For example, in the third volume of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion, combined with his law of universal gravitation, explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion.

Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle

^{[8]}, in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion, i.e., the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis, or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. Therefore, a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star.

In their original form, Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion, later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles, each governed by Newton’s laws of motion, then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. Euler’s laws can, however, be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies, independently of any particle structure.

^{[9]}

Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is; from this point of view, the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame, and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second.

^{[10]}

^{[11]}The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death.

In the given interpretation mass, acceleration, momentum, and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities. This is the most common, but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities.

At speeds approaching the speed of light the effects of special relativity must be taken into account.

^{[12]}

## Contents |

## Newton's first law

“ | Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum, nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. | ” |

“ | Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward, except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed.^{[13]} | ” |

- An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it.
- An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it.

^{[14]}

^{[15]}Newton's first law is often referred to as the

*law of inertia*. Thus, a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero. In this sense, the first law can be restated as:

“ | In every material universe, the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. That is, a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it.^{[16]} | ” |

^{[17]}

Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted to remain in the heavens. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest, and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it, otherwise it would stop moving. Galileo, however, realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body, i.e., acceleration, but no force is needed to maintain its velocity. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration, and hence the body will maintain its velocity.

The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently.

^{[18]}The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law, although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it.

## Newton's second law

The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum**p**in an inertial reference frame:

^{[20]}

^{[21]}

^{[22]}the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. Thus,

**F**is the net force applied,

*m*is the mass of the body, and

**a**is the body's acceleration. Thus, the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration.

Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below).

Consistent with the first law, the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction, even if there is no change in its magnitude; such is the case with uniform circular motion. The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero, the momentum of the body is constant. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum.

Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account, because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate.

### Impulse

An impulse**J**occurs when a force

**F**acts over an interval of time Δ

*t*, and it is given by

^{[23]}

^{[24]}

^{[25]}

Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts.

^{[26]}

### Variable-mass systems

Variable-mass systems, like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases, are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law.^{[21]}The reasoning, given in

*An Introduction to Mechanics*by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts, is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles.

^{[22]}In classical mechanics, particles by definition have constant mass. In case of a well-defined system of particles, Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system:

**F**

_{net}is the total external force on the system,

*M*is the total mass of the system, and

**a**

_{cm}is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system.

Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles, and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. Instead, the general equation of motion for a body whose mass

*m*varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:

^{[20]}

**u**is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. Under some conventions, the quantity (

**u**d

*m*/d

*t*) on the left-hand side, known as the thrust, is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass, such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity

**F**. Then, by substituting the definition of acceleration, the equation becomes

### History

Newton's original Latin reads:This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as:Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae, et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur.

According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology,Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd.

^{[27]}this is understood, in modern terms, as an equivalent of:

Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion, reading:The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body, and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed.

The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology, and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood, have been extensively discussed by historians of science, along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations.If a force generates a motion, a double force will generate double the motion, a triple force triple the motion, whether that force be impressed altogether and at once, or gradually and successively. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force), if the body moved before, is added to or subtracted from the former motion, according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other; or obliquely joined, when they are oblique, so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both.

^{[28]}

## Newton's third law

“ | Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. | ” |

“ | To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. | ” |

“ | LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. If you press a stone with your finger, the finger is also pressed by the stone. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope, the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope, by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself, will draw the horse as much towards the stone, as it does the stone towards the horse, and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. If a body impinges upon another, and by its force changes the motion of the other, that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change, in its own motion, toward the contrary part. The changes made by these actions are equal, not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies; that is to say, if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. For, as the motions are equally changed, the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. This law takes place also in attractions, as will be proved in the next scholium.^{[30]} | ” |

*motion*is Newton's name for momentum, hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity.

The Third Law means that all forces are

*interactions*between different bodies,

^{[31]}and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. If body

*A*exerts a force on body

*B*, body

*B*simultaneously exerts a force of the same magnitude on body

*A*— both forces acting along the same line. As shown in the diagram opposite, the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude, but act in opposite directions. Although the forces are equal, the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e.g., if the road exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires, then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road).

Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects, and not on a single object. So each and every force has two ends. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other, one might say.

Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum;

^{[32]}however from a deeper perspective, conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance), and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail, for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum, and in quantum mechanics.

## Importance and range of validity

Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years, and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. Newton's laws of motion, together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus, provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena.These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. However, Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances, most notably at very small scales, very high speeds (in special relativity, the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields. Therefore, the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor, optical properties of substances, errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theory, including general relativity and quantum field theory.

In quantum mechanics concepts such as force, momentum, and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state; at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light, Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. At speeds comparable to the speed of light, the second law holds in the original form

**F**= d

**p**d

*t*, which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time, but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities.

## Relationship to the conservation laws

In modern physics, the laws of conservation of momentum, energy, and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws, since they apply to both light and matter, and to both classical and non-classical physics.This can be stated simply, "Momentum, energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed."

Because force is the time derivative of momentum, the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum, and is not used in fundamental theories (e.g. quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, general relativity, etc.). The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation. Indeed, the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with semi-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other, which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions.

Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. However, he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance, and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". In modern physics, action at a distance has been completely eliminated, except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites, the concept of action at a distance is used extensively.

Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime, the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light.

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